Basic Education In Ghana

As any other education system, the Ghanaian Education System is designed to equip individuals with relevant skills and competencies for the future. The world is gradually becoming a global village where persons are expected to function accordingly irrespective of their geographical location.
It is in this light that the Ministry Of Education, having a tagline that reads “Building an educated, skilled and confident society, equipped with global competencies”, has carved through the agency of the Ghana Education Service (G.E.S) the 6-3-3-4 system.
In the 6-3-3-4 system, a pupil, after going through the Pre-School spanning over 2 years from Kindergarten 1 to 2, enrolls in the Primary school for 6 years. The Primary School of six years is made up of 2 modules (Lower Primary and Upper Primary), each running for three (3) years.
At the end of Primary 6, the pupil proceeds into the Junior High School(JHS) for the next three(3) years in preparation to sit for the Basic Education Certificate Examination(B.E.C.E). A pass of this examination, which is administered by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC), lands the pupil an enrollment into the Senior High School (General or Technical) for another three (3) years to run the third phase of the 6-3-3-4 system. It is noteworthy that education from kindergarten right up to JHS became free under the FCUBE Policy as entrenched in the 1992 Constitution. The SHS education, however, became free since September 2017.
At the end of this third phase, the student then sits for the West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) to qualify for a tertiary institution in order to finish the final phase of the system in a university, which lasts for four(4) years to obtain a bachelor’s degree or a polytechnic for three (3) years to obtain a Higher National Diploma(HND).
With this background and for the sake of this article, we shall limit ourselves to details of subjects of study at the Basic Education level.
Kindergarten education is a very vital step to success in the basic school. This is where children of school going age are groomed into proficiency in disciplines such as:
English Language (Language And Literacy)
Mathematics (Number Work)
Creative Activities (Drawing and Writing)
Music, Movement and Drama
Environmental Studies,
Physical Development, and
Psychosocial Skills.
These serve as foundation stones for serious academic business in the lower primary level and should be handled with all seriousness. It is, however, evident that pupils who, due to one reason or the other, have not had efficient grooming in the kindergarten have issues coping with academic work in the lower primary. Some even end up carrying deficiencies with them throughout their basic education if appropriate methods are not adopted to aid them in overcoming such challenges.
We shall now turn our attention on subject areas in the basic school system. Below is a bird’s-eye view of all the subjects.
Lower Primary: English Language
Mathematics
Natural Science
Religious and Moral Education
Information and Communication Technology
Creative Arts
Ghanaian Language
French
Upper Primary: English Language
Mathematics
Integrated Science
Religious and Moral Education
Citizenship Education
Information and Communication Technology
Creative Arts
Ghanaian Language
French
Junior High School: English Language
Mathematics
Integrated Science
Religious and Moral Education
Social Studies
Information and Communication Technology
Basic Design And Technology
Ghanaian Language
French
In subsequent posts we shall examine each of these subject areas and how to excellently pass them. Watch out!

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